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Civil engineers
Description: Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, water and sewage systems, and waste disposal units. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, ocean, and geo-technical engineers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition at http://www.bls.gov/OCO/
Salary: $50,001 or more per year

Comments:
Engineer here. Mostly advanced algebra and trig is what we use daily. Once in a while, I have to hand-calculate something hydraulically related and you can get into calculus doing that. Even then, they're usually formulas that you get - empirical formulas - that tend to come from state regulatory agencies (they all have manuals, like my 'bible', the FDOT Drainage Manual in all its three volume glory) based on their experience with everything from materials longevity to rainfall distribution in the area. Formulas dealing with rainfall prediction can be extremely complex. We have things called isopluvial maps that we use, which are rainfall amount distribution maps. These maps allow me to calculate things like the amount of rain that constitutes a 25-year, 24-hour storm event. That means that I can calculate for any town in Florida the amount of rain that is predicted to fall in a storm so intense it only comes once every 25-years, and it lasts 24-hours. The FDOT requires that I test my stormwater pond systems for a total of 48 storm frequencies! That gets us into matrix mathematics. When I submit a pond design to the DOT for review, I have to provide the following storm matrix. My pond has to be able to contain all 48 storms in the matrix. I have to test the: 1-year 2-year 3-year 5-year 10-year 25-year 50-year 100-year For the 1-hr 2-hr 4-hr 8-hr 24-hr 72-hr (3-day) 168-hour (7-day) 240-hour (10-day) Events. Now, I have modeling software that can do this for me, but I have to know how the software calculates the storm events to understand if the data is reasonable. All data that my modeling software generates has to be reviewed first by me, then one of my peers, then a senior engineer, then another senior engineer, then it usually goes back to the first senior engineer for signing and sealing, which makes the plans a legal document that if passed by a governing agency, will become construction plans for whatever you designed. So when a program spits out a number, I can't just blindly trust it. I.e., I have to know what the heck the computer is doing for me. Yeah, you could say I use lots of math at my job, and I love it. Keeps the mind sharp! -R

There are 35 math topics Civil engineers need to know.
Basic Math / Algebra
Fractions
Decimals
Ratio and Proportion
Percent
Customary Measurement
Powers and Roots
Negative Numbers
Scientific Notation
Basic Problem Solving
First-Year Algebra
Using Formulas
Linear Equations
Operations with Polynomials
Rational Expressions
Coordinate Graphing 2D
Quadratic Equations
Algebraic Representation
Geometry
Basic Terminology
Angle Measurement
Similarity
Pythagorean Theorem
Right Triangle Trigonometry
Area
Volume
Make/Use 3D Drawings
Second-Year Algebra / Trigonometry
Variation
Coordinate Graphing 3D
Vectors
Other Topics
Basic Calculator Use
Scientific Calculator Use
Computer Use
Group Problem Solving
Mental Math
Inductive/Deductive Reasoning
Math Communications
Mathematical Modeling